2 edition of Adaptive allometric modeling of the pelvis in small-bodied Later Stone Age (Holocene) foragers from southern Africa. found in the catalog.
Adaptive allometric modeling of the pelvis in small-bodied Later Stone Age (Holocene) foragers from southern Africa.
Helen Kaarina Kurki
Written in English
In human females the bony pelvis must find a balance between being small (narrow) to accommodate the mechanical requirements of efficient bipedal locomotion, and being large to accommodate a relatively large newborn. It has been demonstrated that taller/larger-bodied women have larger pelvic canals. This study investigates whether in a population where small body size is the norm, pelvic geometry (size and shape) is adapted to protect the obstetric canal.Osteometric data (25 measurements) were collected from the pelves (articulated and non-articulated elements), femora and clavicles (body size indicators, along with bi-iliac breadth) of adult skeletons of small-bodied Later Stone Age (LSA) foragers from southern Africa (n = 28 females, mean estimated body mass = 44 kg, stature =152 cm; n = 31 males, estimated body mass = 46 kg, stature = 158 cm), larger-bodied Portuguese from the Coimbra Identified Skeletal Collection (CISC) (n = 40 females, mean estimated body mass = 55 kg, stature =153 cm; n = 40 males, estimated body mass = 63 kg, stature =167 cm) and large-bodied European-Americans from the Hamann-Todd Osteological Collection (H-T) (n = 40 females, mean estimated body mass = 59 kg, stature =157 cm; n = 40 males, estimated body mass = 67 kg, stature = 168 cm).Patterns of sexual dimorphism are similar in the samples, with the highest indices of dimorphism in the canal dimensions. The LSA sample displays the highest dimorphism in the canal dimensions and the lowest dimorphism in body size. Correlation and regression analyses indicate that differences exist among the samples in the relationships between pelvic dimensions and body size; canal variables tend to show low or non-significant correlations with body size. Univariate and multivariate analyses of raw and Mosimann shape-variables indicate that compared to the CISC and H-T females, the LSA females have relatively large midplane and outlet canal planes (particularly posterior and A-P lengths). The LSA males also follow this pattern. The CISC females, who also have equally small stature, but larger body mass, do not show the same type of pelvic canal size and shape accommodation.
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(a) Species data. Our goal was to analyse the differences in body weight, in kilogram, and brain volume, in cubic centimetres (which we refer to as body size and brain size throughout the paper) between H. floresiensis and its potential ancestor, which likely was a form of H. erectus [26,27].This species was present in the region at about 1 Ma, whereas australopiths or earlier forms of Homo. Designed to represent a realistic model of the female pelvic region for educational purposes Life size model of female pelvis represents detailed information about the topography of bones, ligaments, pelvic floor muscles and female pelvic organs Contains removable pieces for the study of the female genitalia and pelvic anatomy Parts can be disassembled for further examination of the anatomical.
This paper evaluates the assumption that small-bodied Later Stone Age (LSA) foragers of Southern Africa show the adult proportions that would be expected of warm-adapted populations. Comparisons are also made with small-bodied foragers from the Andaman Islands (AI). Indices including brachial, crural, limb element length to skeletal trunk. Small bodied Small brained Moderately prognathic faces Broad but narrow pelvis U-shaped palate. (Later Stone Age) Blades - flakes that are twice as long as they are wide Neandertals. An adaptive change in the frequency of a given gene or genes in the gene pool from generation to generation caused by natural selection.
The pelvic floor muscles, which are located in the pelvic outlet, make up the pelvic diaphragm, which separates the pelvic viscera from the more inferior perineal structures. Pelvic floor muscles must be strong to support the midline pelvic organs and structures, to counter abdominal pressure (from a cough or sneeze), and to assist in urination. The pelvis, so called from its resemblance to a basin, is a bony ring, interposed between the movable vertebræ of the vertebral column which it supports, and the lower limbs upon which it rests; it is stronger and more massively constructed than the wall of the cranial or thoracic cavities, and is composed of four bones: the two hip bones laterally and in front and the sacrum and coccyx behind.
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The results suggest that adaptive allometric modeling in at least some small-bodied populations protects the obstetric canal. These findings support the use of population-specific attributes in.
In a study of a small-bodied forager population from the Later Stone Age, Kurki found that despite narrow bi-iliac breadth, pelvic dimensions were similar to those of larger-sized humans.
Opportunities to assess morphological allometry in small-bodied human populations are rare. The foragers of the Later Stone Age of the South African Cape are characteristically small-bodied. H.K. KurkiAdaptive Allometric Modeling of the Pelvis in Small-bodied Later Stone Age (Holocene) Foragers from Southern Africa (Ph.D.
dissertation) University of Cited by: 5. The major evolutionary model for the evolution of the human pelvis in relation to childbirth has been for many decades the Obstetrical Dilemma Hypothesis (Washburn, ), which views the female pelvis as representing a compromise between the functional requirements of bipedal locomotion for a narrow pelvis and the obstetric requirements of Cited by: The total sexual dimorphism in pelvis shape (bottom row) is disentangled into its two components: the allometric component (top row) and the non‐allometric component (middle row).
Each row contains the corresponding female and male shapes, together with fivefold extrapolations of their difference (“ultra‐female” and “ultra‐male”). One such population is that of the Holocene Later Stone Age (LSA) of southern Africa, in which small stature (mean femoral length = mm, n = 52) and narrow pelves (mean bi-iliac breadth = Adaptive allometric modeling of the pelvis in small-bodied Later Stone Age (Holocene) foragers from southern Africa.
Ph.D. dissertation, University of Toronto. Google Scholar. - (H. Kurki, J Ginter, J. Stock & S. Pfeiffer). Adult Proportionality in Small-Bodied Foragers: A test of Ecogeographic Expectations. American Journal of Physical Anthropology DOI /ajpa; - Protection of Obstetric Dimensions in a Small-Bodied Human Sample.
This implies adaptive allometric remodeling, through selective pressures (Kurki, ; Pfeiffer et al., ). Indeed, there is evidence for excess mortality among very young adult women.
Around the age of 40–45 y, the female pelvis resumes a mode of shape change which is similar to that of males (Figs. 2 and and3B, 3B, Table S2, and Movies S4–S6). This pattern largely corresponds to that present in ∼ to y-old males (Table S2). Anteroposterior and superoinferior pelvic dimensions become relatively shorter.
A complex of traits in the femur and pelvis of Homo ereclus and early “erectus‐like” specimens has been described, but never satisfactorily the functional relationships between pelvic and femoral structure in humans are explored using both theoretical biomechanical models and empirical tests within modern samples of diverse body form (Pecos Amerindians, East Africans).
The greenside darter Etheostoma blennioides is a small‐bodied benthic stream fish that occurs in multiple drainages of the eastern USA. Previous studies have revealed some morphological differentiations among greensides from isolated drainage systems but growth relationships among functional morphological characteristics have not been examined within and between populations.
By the pelvis demonstrates a posterior-to-anterior gradient of increasing dimorphism within the inlet of the pelvic birth canal. Canalization of growth of the transverse diameters of the sacrum, inlet, anterior inferior iliac spines, and breadths of the ilium and ischium during puberty can be attributed to the effects of stabilizing.
The greatest concentration of Later Stone Age (LSA) archaeological material has been documented in southernmost coastal and near-coastal regions of South Africa, with the highest Holocene population numbers found around latitude 34°S ().While there are variations in rainfall, topography, and food resources throughout the region, the consistency of the Mediterranean climate, fynbos, and.
The Ardipithecus ramidus pelvic morphology was described as intermediate between Miocene ape Ekembo nyanzae 2 and bipedally‐adapted Australopithecus in certain regards (Lovejoy et al., c), which has implications for the pelvic morphology of the Pan‐Homo LCA.
Ekembo nyanzae ( Myr) is a stem hominoid (but see Harrison, ) whose pelvic morphology is known from a partial skeleton. 4 MO Stone James R. 6 MO Shannon Current R. 4 MO Oregon Frederick Cr., Eleven.
Whatever the adaptive or functional significance of australopithecine pelvic morphology may be, it is intriguing that virtually the same suite of anatomical features is seen in the pelvis of another hominin from the opposite side of the globe and millions of years later.
The small-bodied, short-legged, small-brained hominin Homo floresiensis. The magnitude of pelvic shape change (in units of Procrustes distance) connected to stature and head circumference was only slightly larger for females than for males (Table 2), but the pattern of shape change differed between the pelvic shape change associated with stature differed significantly between males and females (P.
Human evolution; Previously hominid evolution The evolution of Homo sapiens, its ancestors, and closely related species from the last common ancestor with chimpanzees onward (~7 million years ago to. The Asymmetric Pelvis Liz Gaggini, M.A.
Very rarely are both the left and right sides of the body the same. In Structural Integration we often ignore these side-to-side asymmetries by working the same way on each side of the body.
We need to learn to customize our work to. Based on a theoretical model, an empirical analysis of modern human morphological variation, and the body form of an early hominid of much larger body size (KNM-WT ; Brown et al., ), 1 will argue here that the reduction in relative pelvic breadth from early small hominids to later hominids was necessitated, at least in part, by.Pelvis 3D models ready to view, buy, and download for free.
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